Students solve two mysteries on thermal energy that demonstrate that heat is a form of energy that moves from areas of high heat to low heat. Students are hired by the Better Business Bureau to put their knowledge of heat transfer to the test by investigating two heat-related claims. The unit culminates in an engineering challenge in which students are tasked with making a low-cost, highly effective cooler that can compete with the leading cooler on the market.
- Lesson 1
Solve: Our Life in Thermal Imaging + Winter Glove Mystery
Choose to solve a live video mystery on thermal imaging or an animated mystery on false claims Willy Warm is peddling about his gloves! Utilizing new vocabulary and guided questions, students discover how heat moves and the materials that can slow its movement. (Live Solve: 90-105 minutes; Animated Solve: 80 minutes)
- Lesson 2
Make: Lab Stations: Experience Thermal Energy Transfer
Students design and conduct their own experiments to determine the best insulator and conductor. (100 minutes)
- Lesson 3
Engineer: Apply your Knowledge to Engineer Your Own Insulator and Conductor
It’s time for a challenge! Who can design an insulator that keeps an ice cube colder than the leading brand? Building off what they learned in the “Make” and based on data they collect on different materials, learners will design the best insulator for this challenge. (200 minutes)
- Next Generation Science Standards
- Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
- Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.]
- Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample. [Clarification Statement: Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.]
- Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. [Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments could include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculations of energy.]
- Inquiry Scale
- Each lesson in the unit has an Inquiry Scale that provides directions on how to implement the lesson at the level that works best for you and your students.
- “Level 1” is the most teacher-driven, and recommended for students in 4th-5th grades. “Level 4” is the most student-driven, and recommended for students in 7th-8th grades.
- For differentiation within the same grade or class, use different inquiry levels for different groups of students who may require additional support or an extra challenge.
- Common Misconceptions
- Learners’ first inclination is the opposite of reality: They will think that when they open the fridge, cold air escapes or that when their hands get cold, it is cold moving towards their hands. This is best helped with a thorough explanation of particle motion, building off the particle motion unit.
- Learners may need some scaffolding to help them understand why hot water rises and cold air sinks in the “Make” lab. Ask them to visualize the molecules and consider the density of the molecules at different temperatures.
- Content Expert
- Hans C. von Baeyer
Chancellor Professor of Physics, Emeritus College of William and Mary
- Hans C. von Baeyer
- Leveled Reading
* To give our users the most comprehensive science resource, Mosa Mack is piloting a partnership with RocketLit, a provider of leveled science articles.
- Light That Heats
This article talks about how light is different than most kinds of energy. Light can move through space as radiation and we can even feel one part of it as infrared heat!
- Feel the Burn
This article gives an introduction to fuel and the heat that is released when it's consumed. We can feel this heat energy leaving the things that once contained them when we heat up while exercising or set wood on fire.
- Heat in Motion
In this article students read about how convection moves matter by changing the density of a fluid.
- Heat That Shakes
In this article students will read about the way heat travels through a conductor. They learn about the collisions that happen between molecules and how these spread in a conductor and how they are stopped more quickly in an insulator.
- How Hot?
In this article students will read about temperature and the ways that it can be measured. The article explains the concept of average kinetic energy and the differences between alcohol and mercury thermometers.
- Light That Heats