Unit Overview

In Mosa Mack’s Sun-Earth System unit, students are led through a progression of three inquiry lessons that focuses on how the tilt of the Earth and its rotation around the sun affects sunlight and heating of different regions. In the Make Extension, students conduct experiments to determine the role of gravity in the solar system.

Lesson Overview

Medium 1s 640Solve: Summer Snowboarding Mystery + Vocabulary Mind Map

Students contextualize Sun-Earth System vocabulary in a mind map before helping Mosa Mack solve the mystery of why Neve’s snowboard vacation in New Zealand is foiled by mysteriously summery weather. By the end of The Solve,students discover that seasons differ across the globe because of the tilt of the Earth and the angle at which the Sun hits the Earth. (75 mins)

Medium 2m 640Make: Model Light Dispersion and the Earth-Sun System

Students conduct three investigations about light and heat dispersion that demonstrate it is 1. the angle at which the sun’s rays hit the earth and 2. the earth’s orbital position around the sun that causes seasons. (145 mins)

Medium 3e 640Engineer: Engineer a Product that Focuses Light Energy

Using what they learned in the Make, students design a product that uses light to our advantage by focusing light energy to produce heat. (300 mins)

Next Generations Science Standards

Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.
Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

Science & Engineering Practices

  • Analyzing and Interpreting Data
  • Developing and Using Models

Disciplinary Core Ideas

  • Earth and the Solar System
  • The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
  • Weather and Climate

Cross Cutting Concepts

  • Patterns
  • Systems and System Models

Inquiry Scale

  • Each lesson in the unit has an Inquiry Scale that provides directions on how to implement the lesson at the level that works best for you and your students.
  • “Level 1” is the most teacher-driven, and recommended for students in 4th-5th grades. “Level 4” is the most student-driven, and recommended for students in 7th-8th grades.
  • For differentiation within the same grade or class, use different inquiry levels for different groups of students who may require additional support or an extra challenge.

Common Misconceptions

  • Students sometimes assume that the Earth is flat since the ground they walk on is flat. Emphasize through the Solve that the Earth is round, and this round shape affects angles of sunlight.
  • Students sometimes have a hard time believing that the Earth is moving and orbiting the sun because they can’t feel it. It is true that the Earth is moving at a very fast rate, but the reason they can’t feel it is because Earth is moving at a constant rate. Encourage students to think of how they feel in a car or airplane moving at a constant speed as opposed to a car or airplane that is quickly accelerating.
  • Students tend to assume that every area of the world experiences seasons at the same time. Use the Solve and the model in the Make to emphasize that because the Earth is tilted, the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere experience different sun angles at different times of year.
  • Students initially think that different regions of the Earth are warmer from being closer to the sun. Emphasize to students through the Solve and Make that it is not about distance to the sun, but rather the angle at which the sun hits the Earth. Use the example of the equators vs. the poles.


    • Earth
    • Angle of Sunlight
    • Equator
    • Heat
    • Poles
    • Season
    • Sun


  • Powerpoints for Make and Design
  • Vocabulary Mind Map
  • Solve Student Handout
  • Make Student Handout
  • Design Student Handout

New: RocketLit Leveled Reading

* To give our users the most comprehensive science resource, Mosa Mack is piloting a partnership with RocketLit, a provider of leveled science articles.

  • Light Hits All of Us Differently

    In this article, students will read about all how seasons are affected by earth's axis and rotation. They'll also read about why it's hotter at the equator and colder toward the poles.

  • The Trip Around the Sun

    In this article, students learn about the different elements of Earth's orbit around the sun. We introduce students to the orbit around the star, the period of revolution, and the tilt of our axis.

  • Space Tug o' War!

    Why doesn't the Earth fall into the Sun? In this article, we define the terms mass, gravity, orbit, and velocity. This article serves to introduce students to the ideas behind why planets are able to stay in orbit by flying through space at just the right velocity, and with just the right amount of gravitational pull from their star.

  • Why are Planets Round?

    This article explains how gravity works to pull planets and stars together into spheres.