In the Food Web unit, students are led through a progression of three inquiry lessons that focus on interactions in the environment, predator-prey relationships, and the transfer of energy within an ecosystem.
Solve: Hungry Frog Mystery + Vocabulary Mind Map Make: Design a Food Web to Show Feeding Relationships Engineer: Engineer a Solution to a Food Waste Problem
Students contextualize Food Web vocabulary before helping Mosa Mack solve the mystery of the disappearing grasshoppers. By the end of The Solve, students learn the relationship between four organisms in a food chain. (70 min)
Students design their own food web to show feeding relationships between the organisms in an environment. (90 min)
Students use their knowledge of the food web to design a solution that reduces the amount of waste your cafeteria sends to the local landfill. (180 min)
Next Generations Science Standards
- Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that matter that is not food (air, water, decomposed materials in soil) is changed by plants into matter that is food. Examples of systems could include organisms, ecosystems, and the Earth.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include molecular explanations.]
- Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, and motion and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include diagrams, and flow charts.]
- Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.]
- Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial.]
- Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems, and on defining the boundaries of the system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of chemical reactions to describe the processes.]
- Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.]
- Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.]
Science & Engineering Practices
- Connections to Nature of Science
- Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
- Developing and Using Models
- Engaging in Arguments From Evidence
- Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
- Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
Disciplinary Core Ideas
- Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
- Developing Possible Solutions
- Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
- Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
- Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
- Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
Cross Cutting Concepts
- Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
- Connections to Nature of Science
- Energy and Matter
- Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World
- Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World
- Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
- Stability and Change
- Systems and System Models
- Each lesson in the unit has an Inquiry Scale that provides directions on how to implement the lesson at the level that works best for you and your students.
- “Level 1” is the most teacher-driven, and recommended for students in 4th-5th grades. “Level 4” is the most student-driven, and recommended for students in 7th-8th grades.
- For differentiation within the same grade or class, use different inquiry levels for different groups of students who may require additional support or an extra challenge.
- Arrows in a food web show the direction of energy flow, not which predators eat which prey. Directionality of arrows matters.
- Not all of the energy in one organism gets passed to the next level of organism. 90% gets released as heat.
- Not all organisms need to eat others to get energy. Producers produce their own energy from the sun.
- Primary Consumer
- Secondary Consumer
- Clive G. Jones
Terrestrial Ecologist, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Expertise: Biodiversity, Environmental Management
Modeling and Assimilation Office
- Powerpoints for Make and Design
- Vocabulary Cards
- Solve Student Handout
- Make Student Handout
- Design Student Handout
New: RocketLit Leveled Reading
* To give our users the most comprehensive science resource, Mosa Mack is piloting a partnership with RocketLit, a provider of leveled science articles.
- Webs Are Not Only For Spiders
Food webs are much more complicated than a simple food chain, and they show the way that energy is exchanged by organisms. Since there are so many different thing connected in ecosystems, balance of each resource is very important and difficult to maintain.
- What's For Dinner?
In the energy pyramid and food web, there are specific roles that different organisms play. Some put energy into the system, others eat each other for energy, and some breakdown dead things to recycle them back into the environment.
- Nitrogen Cycle
In this article, students read about the different parts of the nitrogen cycle. We breathe in nitrogen with every breath, but we can't use any of it. Without bacteria and plants making nitrogen available, living things wouldn't even have the things they need to build DNA!
- What's Your Job?
Different organisms have different jobs in an ecosystem, but sometimes they step on each other's toes. This article explains how organisms compete with each other for living space, the roles that they have and the niches that they fit into within their environment.
- Can't We All Just Get Along?
In cartoons, we might see different organisms being either friends or enemies, but in nature it's much more complicated. Symbiotic relationships change the way both organisms live, and some can be mutualistic (good for both). Some relationships are parasitic (take, hurt, take) and others are more commensal which help one organism involved and don't hurt the other.
- The Sun Powers It All
Introducing the unit, this article builds up that in order for everything to have the energy it needs to live, we need the sun and the organisms that make food from its energy. These organisms store the energy they make and are used by other living things to get the energy they need.
- Energy Pyramid
Energy for life starts out with producers, those organisms that can make their own food. From there, energy is lost to the environment as each different living thing is consumed by another. We can use a pyramid to envision the spread of life at each level and how energy is passed up to higher level organisms.